Presentation on theme: "Hunger: an unlearned, inborn response, is a natural physical drive that protects from starvation. Appetite: is a desire rather than a need, to eat."— Presentation transcript:

An unlearned physical drive, hunger is an inborn response to starvation that protects from death.Hunger is a desire to eat, not a necessity.

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2 Chapter 5 Nutrition- the process by which the body takes in and uses food. Pgs. 110-140

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Calories are units of heat used by the body to store and transport energy from food.Kids and teens usually need more calories than adults. Why is this the case?.Nutrients - substances in foods your body needs in order to grow, to strengthen itself, and to get energy.

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4 It takes 20 minutes for your stomach to tell your brain that it is satisfied and you have eaten enough.Weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, which has become more prevalent in young people in recent years, can be prevented with a balanced and healthy diet.When we grow older, improper eating can contribute to heart disease, stroke, certain cancers, and osteoporosis.

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It is the accumulation of plaque on artery walls called atherosclerosis (a-thuh-roh-sklah-roh-sis).Smoking, saturated fat foods, and high levels of cholesterol cause plaques in the blood.A blocked artery can result in heart attacks and strokes.

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6 Atherosclerosis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ij3k50-C28 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ij3k50-C28

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7 Stroke- condition where an arterial blockage interrupts the flow of blood to the brain. Heart attack- damage to the heart muscle caused by a reduced or blocked blood supply.

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8 One calorie equation- If you are * extremely inactive, you need about 12 calories per pound to stay at current weight. * Light activity (homework or household tasks) 15 calories per pound. Moderately active (walking) = 20 calories per pound. Very active = 25-30 calories per pound. Example: a 140 pound, active person; 140 x 20 = 2,800 calories a day.

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9 Snickers=271 calories

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10 Medium banana=105 calories

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11 About 100 calories burned in 1 mile.

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12 McDonalds Big Mac=540 calories Cheeseburger=300 McChicken=360 Large fry=500 (small=230) Large coke=310 (small=150) Large chocolate shake=880 (small=580)

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13 Explain how calories are related to diet and exercise.

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14 How many calories in one pound of fat?

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15 3,500 calories in one pound of fat In order to lose two pounds of fat, how many extra calories must you burn? In order to gain 3 pounds, how many extra calories will you need to consume? The more active you are, the more calories your body needs to maintain that weight. In order to lose weight, you will need to be more active and eat fewer calories.

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16 1. 7000 calories 2. 10, 500 calories

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17 Tips for healthy weight loss: Eat breakfast; don’t skip meals. Metabolism is like a furnace-keep the fire burning! Variety of foods to get all nutrients. Limit saturated fat (bad fat), cholesterol and sodium. Limit sugar-high calories and low nutrients (empty calories) Limit liquid calories. Watch portion size (meat=computer mouse; carbs=size of fist) Exercise

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18 Nutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water

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19 Carbohydrates-starches and sugars present in foods Body"s preferred MAJOR source of energy 4 calories per gram 55-60% of your diet Excess carbs are stored as body fat

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There are two types of carbs: simple carbs and complex carbs. Simple carbs are sugars such as those found in fruit and milk. Complex carbs are those found in grains, nuts, potatoes, pasta.In order to use complex information, the body must first decompose it into simple.The best fuel for athletes should be more complex than "long lasting"

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21 Fiber - a non-digestible complex carbohydrate Found in tough parts of vegetables, fruits and whole grains. Can’t be digested and used as energy Provides NO CALORIES Diets high in fiber reduce risk of colon cancer. Fiber helps move waste through the digestive system and helps prevent intestinal problems such as constipation. Eat 20-35 grams of fiber each day Bran cereal, oatmeal, brown rice fruits/veggies with edible skins

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22 Protein - help build tissue and maintain body cells Proteins are made of long chains of substances called amino acids. Your body can make all but 9 of the 20 different amino acids that make up proteins The 9 that your body can’t make are called essential amino acids and are NOT MADE by the body. You must get them by the foods you eat. 4 calories per gram

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.A few examples: - Rice and beans - Peanut butter/whole grain bread - Spinach salad with almonds - Hummus and whole grain pitas

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The lipid/fatty substance that cannot be dissolved in water is called fat.Fats are a type of Lipid They store energy for your body and transport vitamins A, D, E, and K through your bloodstream Cushions internal organs No cholesterol 9 calories per gram

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25 Saturated vs. unsaturated fats Saturated fats are solid at room temp. High intake is increased risk of heart disease Animal fats Tropical Oils “bad” fats Raise our bad cholesterol Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temp. Reduced risk of heart disease Olive oil, soybean, corn, cottonseed oils “good” fats

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27 We need fat? Most teen boys need no more than 84 grams of fat per day Most teen girls need no more than 66 grams of fat each day

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28 Cholesterol: waxy lipid-like substances that circulates in blood. Excess is left in arteries of the heart and increases risk of heart disease. Your body makes all the cholesterol it needs, but cholesterol is also found in some foods. Makes cell membranes and nerve tissue produce hormones (ex-estrogen and testosterone) Produce vitamin D and bile (to digest fat)

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29 Cholesterol Low density Lipoprotein (LDL) Lousy High fats in diets raise LDL levels causing plaque formation or (atherosclerosis) High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Healthy Pulls cholesterol away from artery walls, back to liver and destroyed

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30 Extra LDL Lower your saturated fat intake (diet) Fortunate heredity Exercise increases HDLs/lowers LDL’s Medications ex: Lipitor, Zocor, Pravachol Birth-level at 70 Age 1-150 Age 17-150-160 USA average=199 185 better Down from 222 in 1960 Why do you think?

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32 VITAMINS - compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption and metabolism of other nutrients Water-soluble-dissolve in water and pass easily into blood during digestion. Body doesn’t store these so needs to be replenished through food. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed, stored and transported in fat. See pgs. 119 and 120 for charts and examples

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33 Vitamin deficiency diseases Beriberi- Deficiency of Vitamin B1 (thiamine) causes difficulty walking, pain, loss of muscle function, involuntary eye movement Scurvy-Deficiency of Vitamin C causes fatigue, pain in the gums, skin changes, dry mouth. Rickets- Deficiency of Vitamin D causes fractures and deformity, bone tenderness, growth disturbance

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34 Minerals- are substances that the body cannot manufacture but are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth. Ex: calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, and iron. Pg. 121

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35 Water- nutrient that makes up the greatest percentage of the body and is vital for every function.The benefits of staying hydrated include more sweat, greater regulation of your body temperature, and preventing electrolyte imbalances.

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37 Storing & Cooking food Storing food in a refrigerator should be 40 degrees or cooler When cooking food you should cook at 145 degrees or warmer ---------------------------------------------------------------- Pasteurization- process of treating a substance with heat to destroy or slow the growth of pathogens

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38 Foodborne illness or food poisoning: most cases occur in the home. Clean-wash hands in warm, soapy water Wash fruits and vegetables before eat Separate meat; use different plates Cook to 160 for ground beef; 170 roasts and poultry; 145 fish Refrigerate within two hours (1 hour if temp outside is above 85: 40 degrees or less in fridge Frozen stored at 0 degrees

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39 You should wash cutting boards in hot, soapy water. How can using different cutting boards for raw meats and raw vegetables help protect you from foodborne illness?

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40 Dietary Guidelines for Americans- recommended food choices for all healthy Americans ages 2 and over. Make smart choices from every food group (eat a variety of colors) Find a balance between food and physical activity Get the most out of your calories. (avoid empty calories)

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42 History of the food pyramid: the American Food Guide Pyramid was introduced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1992.Republished in 2005 (on page 124) and replaced by My Plate in 2011 Over 25 other countries and organizations have also created food pyramids.

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42 1916 to 1930s: “Food for Young Children” and “How to Select Food.” Established guidance based on food groups and household measures Focus was on “protective foods”

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43 1940s: A Guide to Good Eating (Basic Seven) Foundation diet for nutrient adequacy Included daily number of servings needed from each of seven food groups Lacked specific serving sizes Considered complex

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44 1956 to 1970s: Food for Fitness, A Daily Food Guide (Basic Four) Foundation diet approach—goals for nutrient adequacy Specified amounts from four food groups Did not include guidance on appropriate fats, sugars, and calorie intake.

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45 1979: Hassle-Free Daily Food Guide Developed after the 1977 Dietary Goals for the United States were released Based on the Basic Four, but also included a fifth group to highlight the need to moderate intake of fats, sweets, and alcohol.

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46 1984: Food Wheel: A Pattern for Daily Food Choices Total diet approach included goals for both nutrient adequacy and moderation Five food groups and amounts formed the basis for the Food Guide Pyramid Daily amounts of food provided at three calorie levels First illustrated for a Red Cross nutrition course as a food wheel.

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47 1992

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48 2005-Pg. 124: My Pyramid

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49 2011: choosemyplate.gov

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50 Basic Guidelines from My Plate: Balancing Calories ● Enjoy your food, but eat less. ● Avoid oversized portions. Foods to Increase ● Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. ● Make at least half your grains whole grains. ● Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk. Foods to Reduce ● Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals ― and choose the foods with lower numbers. ● Drink water instead of sugary drinks.

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53 % of total calories 55% should come from carbohydrates 30% should come from fats 15% should come from proteins

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54 Nutrition Labels: Pg. 131 Ingredient List-by weight in descending order. BUT-can be deceiving if listed in several forms. Ex: sugar can be listed like sugar, honey, corn syrup, molasses and any ending with an “ose”, such as sucrose, fructose and maltose. GROSS! Take note of calories per serving and how many servings!

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59 Salt/Sodium Essential in small amounts for- – Helps maintain the right balance of fluids in your body – Helps transmit nerve impulses – Influences the contraction and relaxation of muscles

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60 Kidneys regulate sodium levels in the body.At low levels, kidneys conserve sodium.In high amounts, kidneys produce extra urine.

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61 Kidney

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62 If kidneys can’t eliminate enough sodium, the sodium starts to accumulate in blood. Because sodium attracts and holds water, blood volume increases. Increased blood volume, in turn, makes your heart work harder to move blood through your blood vessels, increasing the pressure in arteries. Certain diseases such as congestive heart failure, cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease can lead to an inability to regulate sodium.

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63 Body requires only 500 mg a day. American Heart Association recommends no more than 2,400 mg a day. Most take in 4,000 mg a day. Sodium high in canned soup, processed food, lunch meats, frozen foods, etc. 1 tsp. of table salt has about 2,300 mg of sodium 1 cup low-fat milk has about 107 mg of sodium

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64 Nutrition websites: www.DietaryGuidelines.gov www.choosemyplate.gov www.Health.gov/paguidelines www.HealthFinder.gov

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